Defining education: al-Farabi and Ibn Sina terminologies
Keywords:terms, Islamic education, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina
Contemporary debate on proper term of Islamic education has been long disputed. This disagreement is reflective of more profound and substantial problems besetting Muslims view, especially their leader, on what Islamic education is and its concomitants. One way to solve the problem, or at least to provide solid basis to analyze and then to answer the question, is to read our Islamic heritage on this theme. Unfortunately, as far as my limited knowledge goes, there is no one single unified discipline in Islamic tradition called education, understood in modern sense, although hints and sometime even extended discussion of some of its aspects can easily be found. Our task, therefore, is to reconstruct what we read and put it into today’s educational context of ours. This paper is meant to be small contribution along this line. It focuses on two prominent thinkers, representative of philosophical strand in Islamic tradition, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. Justification of choosing them, other than the obvious influence of their ideas on later development of Islamic thought including education, is that their elaboration is marked by meticulousness, a quality often associated with philosophy. The approach adopted in this paper is to identify terms used by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, which can be construed as education, and then to analyze them and put them within general context of modern education. The expected result is to recognize terms used in classical Islamic era to signify education and to ascertain which term is more proper.
Abduh, Muhammad, 1993, Al-A‘mal al-Kamilah li al-Imam al-Syaikh Muhammad Abduh, ed. Muhammad ‘Imarah, Dar al-Shuruq, Beirut and Cairo:
Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib, 1985, Islam, Secularism and the Philosophy of the Future, Mansell Publishing Limited, London and New York
Berkes, Niyazi, 1998, The Development of Secularism in Turkey, Hurst & Company, London
Daud, Wan Mohd Nor Wan 1998, The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, an Exposition of the Original Concept of Islamization, ISTAC: Kuala Lumpur
Fakhry, Majid 2002, Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism, His Life, Works and Influence, Oneworld Publications, Oxford.
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 1997, “Falsafah Aflathun wa Ajza’uha” in Abd al-Rahman Badawi, Aflathun fi al-Islam, Dar al-Andalus, Beirut.
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 1985, “Kitab al-Burhan/Analutiqa al-Thaniyah”, cited in Ja‘far Alu Yasin, Al-Farabi fi Hududih wa Rusumih, ‘Alam al-Kutub, Beirut.
Nanji, Shamas Malik 1989, al-Farabi's Philosophy of Education, Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University, , Unpublished Master's Thesis
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 1968, Al-Alfazh al-Musta‘malah fi al-Mantiq, ed. Muhsin Mahdi, Dar al-Machreq Publishers, Beirut.
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 1962, Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, trans. Muhsin Mahdi, The Free Press of Glencoe, New York
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr, Kitab al-Huruf, ed. Muhsin Mahdi, Beirut: Dar el-Mashreq Publishers, 1990
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr, Kitab al-Jam‘u bay Ra’yay al-Hakimayn, ed. Alber Nasri Nadir, Beirut: Dar el-Mashreq, 1968
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr, Kitab Tahsil al-Sa‘adah, ed. ‘Ali bu Malham, Beirut: Dar wa Maktabah al-Hilal, 1995.
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr, Risalah al-Tanbih ‘ala Sabil al-Sa‘adah, ed. Suhban Khalifat, ‘Amman: al-Jami ‘ah al-Urduniyah
Gohlman, William E., The Life of Ibn Sina, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1974.
Gutas, Dimitri, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition, Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2004
Madkour, Ibrahim, “al-Farabi” in M.M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1963, v. 1
Al-Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali bin Muhammad, Adab al-Dunya wa al-Din, n.p.: Dar Maktabah al-Hayah, 1986
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Traditional Islam in the Modern World, London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1994
Al-Qifthi, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali bin Yusuf, Ikhbar al-‘Ulama bi Akhbar al-Hukama’, ed. Ibrahim Syams al-Din, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, 2005.
Sina, Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn Ibn, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, ed. Muhammad Amin al-Dlanawi, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, 1999, v. 1,
Sina, Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn Ibn, al-Shifa: al-Mantiq, al-Burhan, ed. Abu al-‘Ala ‘Afifi, Cairo: al-Matba‘ah al-Amiriyah, 1956
Al-Tahanawi, Muhammad bin Ali, Kashshaf Istilahat al-Funun wa al-Ulum, ed. Ali Dahruj, Beirut: Maktabah Lubnan Nashirun, 1996, v. 1,
Usaybi‘a, Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad bin al-Qasim Ibn Abi, ‘Uyun al-Anba’ fi Thabaqat al-Athibba’, ed. August Muller, Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1995, v. 2,
Wisnovsky, Robert, “Notes on Avicenna’s Concept of Thingness (say’iyya)”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 10 (2000), pp. 181-221.
Zayid, Sa‘id, Al-Farabi, Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif, n.d.,